Gastrointestinal Regulation 

Pharmacological studies showed that agarwood and the leaves of A. sinensis trees have a gastrointestinal regulating effect. Our studies demonstrated that the agarwood ethanol extract significantly improved intestinal peristalsis, enhanced gastric emptying, and inhibited gastric ulcer [60]. Li et al. reported that the ethanol extract of agarwood and A. sinensis leaves enhanced intestinal propulsion [61]. Kakina et al. reported that leaves of A. sinensis trees induced laxation via acetylcholine receptors on loperamide-induced constipation in mice [62]. The acetone extract of A. sinensis leaves had a laxative effect without causing diarrhea, in which genkwanin 5-O-β-primeveroside was the active constituent, whereas the methanol extract did not have the laxative effect [63]. The ethanol extract of A. sinensis leaves had a laxative effect without causing diarrhea in a rat model of low-fiber diet-induced constipation [64]. Mangiferin and genkwanin 5-O-primeveroside were the two major bioactive compounds [65]. Additionally, benzylacetone, an active compound from essential oil, had the effect of enhancing appetite [66,67]. Even though agarwood on alleviating abdominal discomfort has been widely used for centuries, the gastrointestinal regulating effect, especially on a specific disease, is not completely clear.